Airport AODB goes NoSQL (Part 1)

In previous blog posts I discussed ‘AODB and Big Data‘ and ‘AODB in the Cloud‘. As promised, in this third and largest part of the review, I will look at the NoSQL database approach, design a document datamodel, embed it into a MEAN stack and conclude in looking forward implementing an AODB in a Serverless Architecture using Microservices.

In this new series I will review the benefits and options of using a document-oriented database (NoSQL) and start a transition journey moving away from a relational database model to document database.

Robert Yarnall Richie, DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University

Lockheed 12A Electra Junior, Delta Air Lines at Dallas Airport in 1940 by Robert Yarnall Richie (DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University)

Before jumping into relational datamodel review and document design we shall have look at some industry initiatives and working groups that strive for standards with semantic models, business models,  information and data models and exchange formats and patterns. While a lot of airport systems have been developed years back in the absence of these models, but with best knowledge and common practice and experience in the field, we cannot ignore further the existence of emerging and established standards. For legacy systems is near to impossible to adopt the models at the core business implementation layer as products are usually designed around a datamodel which cannot be changed without a significant or even total redesign of the system. Here the approach is the adoption of the models at an integration and mapping layer. You can adopt eg. AIDX as messaging exchange format without having to use it as base of the product, though it creates additionally effort to create mappings. An additional challenge is certainly the number of models around because they were created by different organisations with different but often overlapping aviation domains in mind. I have to admit the organisations are cooperating and represented in the working groups to achieve a level of harmonization where possible. We look at IATA, ICAO, ACI, Eurocontrol, EUROCAE as lead organizations here.

Lets list the current models. This list is certainly not complete and only provides a brief overview. We can and should benefit from the availability of these models (most of them are freely accessible). A lot of standardization effort is going on at the moment, please note some models are to be considered as “work-in-progress”, some are quite advanced, major changes are not be expected and some are also due to submission to governing boards soon or in the process of it. Once the models, at least the exchange message formats, start materializing as official standard we will see them appearing in requirement and tender documents and soon to be out there to simplify system integration.

AIDX Aviation Information Data Exchange IATA XML Message Standard ***
AIDM Airline Industry Data Model IATA Model **
AIRM ATM Information Reference Model Eurocontrol Model ***
AIXM Aeronautical Information Exchange Model Eurocontrol Model ***
ACRIS Semantic Model ACI Model *
AMXM Aerodrome Mapping Exchange Model EUROCAE Model ***
FIXM Flight Information Exchange Model Model ***
WXXM Weather Information Exchange Model Eurocontrol Model ***
BAG XML
Baggage Message Exchange Eurocontrol XML Message Standard *

Status as of end 2016
*** official release available
* work in progress

In the context of AODB products I will look at the below models and message standards first, though all of them are important because there is no clear borderline in the heterogeneous IT landscape at airports, eg. it is a common request by users to see weather data being displayed in dashboards of an AODB despite weather is not a key entity. In the further blog entries, while establishing a new datamodel, we will also discuss the individual models. Some models focus more on ATM and less on airport related activities.

AIDX

Aviation Information Data Exchange is a XML messaging standard to allow information exchange between airlines, airports and other parties in the aviation community. It has been initially created in 2005 and was officially released in 2008, endorsed by IATA Recommended Practice 1797A. Being one of the old timer in this list it is already established and adopted by more than 100 entities. It comprises almost 100 distinct fields that cover most aspects of flight, aircraft and handling details, inclusive of A-CDM. The AIDX working group is governed by ASC (Airport Services Committee) and PADIS (Passenger and Airport Data Interchange Standards) board under the custody of PSC (Passenger Service Conference).

Please note that AIDX will be migrated into the AIDM (Airline Industry Data Model) which has a much broader scope than AIDX. We shall not ignore AIDX as it will be around for a long time in its raw format and we can expect the AIDM implementation would be quite close (to be discussed and confirmed).

The current release is 16.1. Please follow below links for schema and implementation guide.

 

AIDM and BAG XML

The Airline Industry Data Model (AIDM) has a very broad scope and encompass industry terminology, data definitions, relationships, business requirements.
Looking at an evolution from paper (eg. loadsheets ticket), teletype messages to EDIFACT, the emerging new standards as models and XML are the latest step in the evolution and promise to deliver a better consistency of definitions and data formats, as well an improved interoperability and faster system integration times.
AIDM is work-in-progress and give its nature and vast landscape it might be the continuous model for it, though confirmed standards will arise from it. One of the first implementations adopting the AIDM is the BAG XML initiative which improves bag handling related bag messaging, distribution and does away with the traditional type B messages (BTM, BSM, BPM, BUM, BNS, BCM, BMM, BRQ as per IATA RP 1745).
The documents are not public at this stage, only registered member can access the model which is build with Sparx Enterprise Architect.

In part 2 I will review a simplified relational database model for an AODB as starting point for our migration journey. Stay tuned.

Some reference websites and material you find below.

References Organizations

Eurocontrol https://www.eurocontrol.int
ACI Airports Council International http://www.aci.aero
IATA International Air Transport Association http://www.iata.org
ICAO International Civil Aviation Organization http://www.icao.int
EUROCAE European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment https://www.eurocae.net
RTCA Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics http://www.rtca.org

References Standardization and models

ACRIS http://www.aci.aero/About-ACI/Priorities/Airport-IT/ACRIS
AIRM http://im.eurocontrol.int/wiki/index.php/ATM_Information_Reference_Model
https://www.eurocontrol.int/articles/airm-atm-information-reference-model
https://www.eurocontrol.int/sites/default/files/content/documents/sesar/8.1.3.d47-airm-primer-v4.1.0.pdf
AIDM http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/passenger/Pages/industry-data-model.aspx
AIDX http://www.iata.org/publications/Pages/info-data-exchange.aspx
BAG XML http://www.iata.org/whatwedo/ops-infra/baggage/Pages/baggage-xml.aspx
AIXM http://www.aixm.aero
https://ext.eurocontrol.int/aixmwiki_public/bin/view/Main/
WXXM http://www.wxxm.aero
FIXM https://www.fixm.aero
AMXM http://www.amxm.aero

( Model, implementation guidelines or schema available on website without registration.)

References Technology:

Disclaimer: This discussion, datamodel and application is for study purpose solely. It does not reflect or replicate any existing commercial product.

Airports – Ready for the Cloud ?

Unlike airlines which are used to distributed operations and having systems like a reservation system hosted centrally at their hub (originating in the times of mainframe servers with access to this crucial part of their operations only via a remote connection), airports still tend to follow a much more traditional approach. Airport operations are local and and not geographically distributed like airlines, over decades they established local data-centres on-premise and created a mindset of full control only available with the server and IT services right in their basement. Along come big IT departments with teams of server-, network-, db-admins and support.

St. Albert at Dublin Airport, circa 1950 (CC by National LIbrary of Irland)

St. Albert at Dublin Airport, circa 1950 (CC by National Library of Ireland)

This paradigm is slowly changing, due to the fact airports need to cut cost and operate more efficiently. In parallel we can observe an attitude change at management levels, becoming more open to solutions which are outside of their physical control, they buy in the concept of SAAS, consuming a service on a subscription base with a well defined SLA and availability. This shift started with less crucial back-office systems, like Email-Server and document repositories, and now moving on towards more operation critical systems. Slow adopters or companies restricted by policies or governance issues start moving towards a private cloud, eventually cutting down on operations costs. Airports start to understand internet availability in the year 2015 reached a commodity level like water and electricity, they start to adopt even public cloud hosted services.
Zero tolerance systems like ATC or something less life critical like a FIDS system will remain certainly a local solution, but AODB’s are moving into the cloud. All the vendors jumped on the bandwagon and offer some kind of cloud solution, be in a private cloud offering (with the vendor) or even deployed to a public cloud. The potential in this approach is the opportunity to offer an AODB solution at a fraction of a price of traditional AODB projects. Deploying to a public cloud, without any local requirements other than an internet connection and a browser, a small airport can start using an AODB without any investment, maybe at a price as cheap as 3.000,- Euro monthly subscription. Assuming a smaller airport (less than 1 million PAX/year or something like 25..50 commercial flights a day plus GA) is operating with simple requirements (flight plan import and management, operational flight tracking,  billing, Type B and AFTN message interface).

To answer the questions: Yes, they are ready.
But it depends on the IT strategy of medium to big airports or the restricted budget and need of smaller airports.

Let’s see who is serving the long tail in the airport market !

Airtilus presentation @ prezi

How old is MS Powerpoint ? It was introduced in May 1990, a staggering 22 years in place and the main concept did not change – slides (the digital version of the old slide projector). Companies still depend on it and it is always a struggle to get it running at conferences, talks or customer sites (must bring your own notebook, cannot connect to projector,..).
..You still see people using the typewriter effects in presentations.
..You always see presenters fiddling around with powerpoint design mode when setting up or getting started.

Yes, at least we have free alternative, OpenOffice or LibreOffice (coming with the same features)

If you want to be a bit more presentation 2.0’ish you should try prezi which allows you to create very pleasing and fresh online (and offline!!!) presentations. You can edit and show them online, without relying on notebooks, installed powerpoint viewers etc. It also comes with an iPad app for mobile offline presentation. The only thing I dislike: it relies on Flash, guess just a matter of time until a html5 version is available.

I just created a product presentation with it and get a lot of good feedback, even it is not fully utilizing the prezi features.

prezi presentation

prezi presentation

prezi design screen

 

What is Airtilus ?

A cloudbased (private and public) web solution for the airport community (authorities, groundhandler, airlines,..) that I am working on with my team. It covers Flightplan and Resource Management, Service Contract Management and more features. It is considered a AODB like (Airport Operational Database) application but stepping away from the traditional monolithic application silo towards a more open and flexible platform.

You want to know more, drop me a note (sven (at) bighugesystems (dot) com) and I will send you the link to above presentation.